Información General


Líneas de investigación


  1. Cambio Climático en sistemas acuáticos.
  2. Efecto de la radiación UV sobre fotosíntesis, fotoprotección, asimilación de nutrientes, daño de ADN y Apoptosis.
  3. Producción Primaria en ecosistemas extremos.
  4. Ecofisiología de macro y microalgas.
  5. Recursos y Cartografía Vegetal.

Biotecnología de Organismos acuáticos.

  1. Biotecnología de biofiltración de efluentes (piscifactorías, granjas porcinas) mediante algas.
  2. Microbiología y acuicultura de peces.
  3. Fotoprotectores, antioxidantes e inmunoestimulantes de algas  y bacterias (probióticas).

Datos sobre proyectos del Grupo

 FYBOA Research Group

The FYBOA (Photobiology and Biotechnology of aquatic organisms) research group of the University of Malaga is investigating since 1995 on the effect of UV solar radiation and global climate change on aquatic organisms and ecosystems.  Biochemical and physiological processes are analyzed as DNA, protein and lipid damages, carbon and nitrogen incorporation (i.e. carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase activities), photosynthetic pigment accumulation (chlorophyll and biliproteins), in vivo spectral, absorption, photosynthesis as oxygen evolution or in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence associated to Photosystem II, photoprotection and quenching  mechanisms as dynamic  photoinhibition, xanthophyll cycle and the accumulation of UV screen substances (photoprotectors) i.e., mycosporine like amino-acids (MAAs) in red algae, phenolic compounds in brown algae and coumarins in green algae (Häder & Figueroa, 1997; Gómez & Figueroa, 1998; Figueroa et al., 2002; Villafañe et al., 2003; Pérez-Rodríguez et al., 2003; Gómez et al., 2004; Korbee et al., 2005, 2006). It has been reported that specific attenuation coefficient (Kc) is a good indicator of the acclimation capacity of algae in terms of photosynthesis to the increase of PAR and UVR (Figueroa et al 1997; Figueroa, 2002). In macrophytes, the absorptance has been related to morpho-functional aspects related to light and nutrients (Salles et al., 1996; Häder & Figueroa, 1997). The capacity of acclimation to UV radiation has been related to morpho-functional characteristics of macrophytes of Atlantic and Mediterranean coast of Southern Spain (Gómez & Figueroa, 1998) and of Patagonia (Gómez et al., 2004).

The interaction among different variables as UV radiation (ozone depletion) and nutrient (eutrophication) or temperature on photosynthetic metabolism has been studied. MAAs increased by both nitrate and ammonium availability suggesting that these substances can have several functions, UV-screen and antioxidant capacities but also reservoir of N (Korbee-Peinado et al., 2004; Korbee et al., 2005; de la Coba, 2007). The main research has been conducted in the Mediterranean and Atlantic coast of Southern Iberian Peninsula but other studies has been conducted in the Baja California in México (Aguirre von Wobeser et al., 2000), Patagonia of Chile ad Argentina (Korbee- Peinado et al., 2004; Gómez et al., 2004, 2005), Arctic and North Sea (Häder et al., 2000; Wiencke et al., 2000). Bio-optical studies of phytoplankton have been conducted in Atlantic and Antarctic waters (Figueroa et al., 1997; Figueroa et al., 2002; Piazena et al., 2002). The effect of UV on growth and reproduction of macrophytes has been also reported (Altamirano et al., 2000, 2003; Conde et al., 2007). The effects of UV radiation on photosynthesis has been studied in macroalgae growing in tanks in aquaculture systems (Aquirre-Von-Wobeser et al., 2000;  Cabello et al., 2000; Figueroa et al., 2009).  The research has been conducted in the frame of intensive international cooperation with Research European groups (Wiencke, Häder, Hanelt, Karsten, Argall and Bischof) and from Latin-America (Gómez, Cabello, Helbling, among others).

FYBOA group coordinated the Pilot UVR and PAR network and photoprotection in Andalucia (FEDER project 1FD97-0824) and participated in UE ProjectEldonet- Installation of an European light dosimeter network” (ENV4- CT96-0191) of the Program Environment and Climate.  The European ELDONET network is based in broad band radiometers of UVB, UVA and PAR, estimating in addition erythematic irradiance (Figueroa et al., 2000; Häder et al. 2001). Other broad band sensors used by FYBOA group in the control of UV lamps in tanning centers is the Macam radiometer (model UV-203) with UV-C (lmax= 254 ± 2nm, FWHM= 12 ± 2nm, UV-B (lmax=295 ±2 nm, FWHM= 19 ±2 nm) and UV-A (lmax=365 ± 2nm, FWHM=35 ±2 nm) sensors.  For PAR measurements, Licor radiometers (Licor-1000, Licor 250A) with underwater cosine corrected (Li-182 SB) and spherical quantum senor (Li-193 SB) sensors are used.

The spectral bio-optical research in oceanographic cruises has been conducted by using one monochromator Licor spectroradiometer (LI-1800 UW), Biosherical (PUV500/510) multifilter radiometer with channels at 305 ± 1nm (bandpass filter 7 ± 1 nm), 320 ± 2 nm (bandpass filter 11 ± 1 nm), 340 ± 2nm (bandpass filter 10 ± 1 nm), 380 ± 2nm (bandpass filter 10 ± 1 nm) (Figueroa et al., 1997, Figueroa et al, 2002). In addition,  FYBOA group is using channel silicon photodiode array  hyperspetral UV-VIS spectroradiometers  for terrestrial measurements, Sphere Optic SMS500 and for underwater,  Ramses ACC –UV (Trios Optical sensor) (Figueroa et al., 2009) .

In addition since October 2009, FYBOA research group has a NILU-UV multi-channel installed at the roof of the Central Building for Research of Malaga University. This radiometer provides global UV irradiance measurements at four wavelength bands centred at 305, 312, 340 and 380 nm, with FWHM of approximately 10 nm. It has also other channel for measuring photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) between 400-700 nm.

The calibration of the radiometers it is conducted by using Licor calibrator model Li 1800-02 provide by 200 W tungsten lamp and the calibration facilities of “El Arenosillo” Station of Spanish Institute of Aerospace technology (INTA).

FYBOA group has  investigated in cooperation with dermatologist the use of MAAs as UV screen and antioxidant substances for humans (De la Coba et al, 2009; Aguilera et al., 2009) presenting patents on the use of MAAs as antioxidants.


Figueroa, F.L., Jiménez, C., Pérez-Lloréns, J. L.  , Niell, F.X. (1996).  Underwater Light and Algal Photobiology. Editorial: Scientia Marina 60: (Supl 1) , 343 pp



Figueroa, F.L. (1998). Underwater light field and primary production. In: Role of solar UV-B radiation on ecosystems. Ecosystem report nº30. European Commission Science Research and Development pp 121-133 Luxemburg.

Figueroa, F.L., Aguilera, J., Viñegla, B.,  Pedrós, G. & López, R. (2000). Red piloto Andaluza de medida de Radiación Ultavioleta-Fotosintética y Fotoprotecciópm. En: Actas del IX Congreso Ibérico de Emnergía Solar y III Jornadas técnicas sobre Biomasa, 7-10.

Viñegla, B., Maestre, C. & Figueroa, F.L. (2000).Response to UV radiation level on enzymatic activities (total carbonic anhydrase and in situ nitrate reductase) in marine macroalgae and seagrasses.En: Avances en el metabolismo del Nitrógeno: Bioquímica, Fisiología y Biología Molecular , F.M. Cánovas & F.J. Florencio (eds.). Serv. Publicaciones Universidad de Málaga.

Figueroa, F.L. (2001) Efecto de la radaición ultravioleta en el medio ambiente y salud humana. Aula de Formación Abierta 2001, 573 - 578.

Villafañe, V., Sunfbäck, C., Figueroa, F.L. & Helbling, W. (2003). Photosynthesis in the aquatic environment as affected by ultraviolet radiation. In UV effects in aquatic  and Ecosystems (E, Walter Helbling & Horacio Zagarese. Eds.) Comprehensive Series in Photosciences.  357-397.

Figueroa, F.L. (2004). Análisis transdisciplinar sobre la destrucción de la capa de ozono e incremento de radiación ultravioleta y sus efectos sobre el medio ambiente y salud humana. In: Tecnociencia y Cultura a comienzos del SXXI . J. Atencia y A. Diéguez (Coords.). Thema . Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Málaga 95 -99.



Häder, D.-P., Lebert, M., Flores, A., Jiménez, C., Mercado, J., Salles, S., Aguilera, J., Figueroa, F.L. (1997). Photosynthesis of the Atlantic red alga Corallina elongata Ellis et Soland measured in the field under solar radiation.Journal Photochem. Photobiol. 37: 196 – 202.

Figueroa, F. L., Jiménez, C., Lubián, L. Montero, O., Lebert, M. , Häder, D.-H. (1997). Effects of high irradiance and temperature on photosynthesis and photoinhibition in Nannochloropsis gaditana Lubián (Eustigmatophyceae). J. Plant Physiol. 151: 6 – 15.

Figueroa,F.L., Ruiz, R. Sáez, E., Lucena, J., Niell, F. X. (1997). Spectral light attenuation and phytoplankton distribution during a daily cycle in the reservoir of La Concepción, Southern Spain. Archiv. Hydrobiol. 14: 71 – 90.

Figueroa, F. L., Salles, S., Aguilera, J. Jiménez, C. Mercado, J., Viñegla, B., Flores-Moya, A. , Altamirano, M. (1997). Effects of solar radiation on photoinhibition and pigmentation in the red alga Porphyra leucosticta Thur. in Le Jol.Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.151:81 – 90.

Häder, D.-P., Figueroa, F.L. (1997). Photoecophysiology of marine macroalgae.

Revista: Photochem. Photobiol. 66: 1 – 14.

Figueroa, F. L., Mercado, J., Jiménez, C., Salles, S., Aguilera, J., Sánchez-Saavedra, M. P., Lebert, M., Häder, D.-P., Montero, O., Lubián, L. (1997). Relationship between bio-optical characteristics and photoinhibition of phytoplankton.Aquat. Bot. 59: 137 – 251.

Figueroa, F.L., Blanco, J.M., Jiménez-Gómez, F., Rodríguez, J. (1997). Effects of ultraviolet radiation on carbon fixation in Antarctic nanophytoflagellates.

Photochem. Photobiol. 66: 185 – 189.

Figueroa, F. L., Niell, F. X., Figueiras, F.G., Villarino, M. L. (1998).Diel migration of phytoplankton and spectral light field in the Ría of Vigo (NW, Spain).Marine Biology, 13: 491-499.

Jiménez, C., Figueroa, F.L., Salles, S., Aguilera, J., Mercado, J.,  Viñegla, B., Flores-Moya, A., Lebert, M., Häder, D.-P. (1998). Effects of solar radiation on photosynthesis and photoinhibition in red macrophytes from an intertidal system of Southern Spain.Bot. Marina 41: 329-338.

Häder, D.P., Lebert, M., Figueroa, F.L., Jiménez, C., Viñegla, B. (1998). Photoinhibition in mediterranean macroalgae by solar radiation measured on site by PAM fluorescence. Aquatic Botany 61: 225-236.

Karsten, U., Sawall, T., Hanelt, D., Bishop, K., Flores-Moya, A., Figueroa, F.L. ,Wiencke, C. (1998). Contents of UV absorbing mycosporine-like aminoacids in macroalgae from polar to warm-temperate regions.Botanica Marina. 41: 443 - 453.

Pérez-Rodríguez, E., Gómez, I., Figueroa, F. L. (1998). Effects of UV radiation on photosynthesis and excretion of UV-absorbing pigments of Dasycladus vermicularis  (Chlorophyta, Dasycladales) from Southern Spain. Phycologia  37: 379 - 387.

Flores-Moya, A., Gómez, I, Viñegla, B., Altamirano, M., Pérez-Rodríguez, E., Maestre, C, Caballero, R. M.,  Figueroa, F. L. (1998). Effects of solar radiation on photosynthetic performance, pigment content and enzymatic activities related to nutrient uptake, of the endemic Mediterranean red alga Rissoella verruculosa.New Phytologist. 139: 673 - 683.

Gómez, I.,  Figueroa, F.L. (1998). Effects of solar UV stress on chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics of intertidal macroalgae from Southern Spain :  a case study in Gelidium species.J. Appl. Phycol.  10: 285-294.

Gómez, I., Pérez-Rodríguez, E., Viñegla, B., Figueroa, F. L. , Karsten, U. (1998).

Effects of solar radiation on photosynthesis , UV-absorbing compounds and enzyme activities of the green alga Dasycladus vermicularis form  southern Spain.J. Photochem. Photobiol.  47: 46-57.

Aguilera, J., Jiménez, C., Figueroa, F.L., Lebert, M. , Häder, D.-P. (1999). Effects of ultraviolet radiation on thallus absorption and photosynthetic pigments in the red alga Porphyra umbilicalis.J. Photochem. Photobiol. 48: 75-82.

Flores -Moya, A., Hanelt, D., Figueroa, F.L., Altamirano, M.,  Viñegla, B., Salles, S. (1999). Involvement of solar UV-B radiation in recovery of inhibited photosynthesis in the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) Lamouroux. J. Photochem. Photobiol. 49: 29-135.

Altamirano, M., Flores-Moya, A., Figueroa, F.L.(2000). Long-term effect of natural sunlight under various ultraviolet radiation conditions on growth and photosynthesis of intertidal Ulva rigida (Chlorophyceae) cultivated in situ. Botanica Marina 43: 119-126.


Häder, D.-P. , Gröniger, A., Hallier, C., Lebert, M. , Figueroa, F.L. ,  Jiménez, C. (2000). Photoinhibition by visible and ultraviolet radiation  in the red macroalga Porphyra umbilicalis.Plant Ecology 145: 351 – 358.

Altamirano, M., Flores-Moya, A., Conde, F.,  Figueroa, F. L. (2000). Growth seasonality, photosynthetic pigments and C and N content in relation to environmental factors: a field study on Ulva olivascens (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Phycologia 39:  50 – 58.

Wiencke, C.,Gómez, I., Pakker, H., Flores-Moya, A., Altamirano, M., Hanelt, D, Bischof, K. ,  Figueroa, F. L. (2000). Impact of UV radiation on viability, photosynthetic characteristics and DNA on algal zoospores: implications for depth zonation. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 197: 217 – 219.

Aguilera, J, Gordillo, F.J.L., Karsten, U., Figueroa, F.L. Wiencke, C., Niell, F.X. (2000). Light quality effect on photosynthesis and efficiency of carbon assimilation in the red alga Porphyra leucosticta. J. Plant Physiology, 157: 86 – 92.

Aquirre-Von-Wobeser, E., Cabello-Pasini, A., Figueroa, F.L. (2000). Effects of UV radiation on photoinhibition of marine macrophytes in culture systemsJ. Applied Phycology, 12:  159 – 168.

Cabello-Pasini, A., Aquirre-Von-Wobeser, E., Figueroa, F.L. (2000). Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyte), Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyta) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) in out-door culture systems.J. Photochem. Photobiol. 57: 169 – 178.

Gómez, I. , Figueroa, F. L., Sousa-Pinto, I., Viñegla, B., Pérez-Rodríguez, E., Maestre, C. , Coelho, S., Felga, A., Ferreira, R. (2001). Effects of UV radiation and temperature on photosynthesis as measured by PAM fluorescence in the red alga Gelidium pulchellum (Turner) Kützing.Botanica Marina 44: 9 – 16.

Häder, D.-P., Lebert, M., Colombetti ,G.,  Figueroa, F.L. (2001). Eldonet-European light dosimeter network : 1998 data.Helgoland Marine Research 55: 35 – 44.

Figueroa, F.L., Gómez, I. (2001). Photoacclimation to solar UV radiation in red macroalgae.J. Appl. Phycology 13: 235 – 248.

Figueroa, F.L., Viñegla, B. (2001).Effects of solar UV radiation on photosynthesis and enzyme activities (carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase) in marine macroalgae from southern Spain.Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 74: 237 – 249.

Pérez-Rodríguez, E., Aguilera, J., Gómez, I., Figueroa, F.L. (2001). Excretion of coumarins by the Mediterranean green alga Dasycladus vermicularis in response to enviromental stress. Mar. Biology:139: 633 – 639.

Figueroa, F. L. (2002). Bio-optical characteristics of Gerlache and Bransfield strait waters during an Antarctic cruise.Deep-Sea Research II 49: 675 - 691.

Rodríguez, J., Jiménez-Gómez, F., Blanco, J. M., Figueroa, F. L. (2002). Physical gradients and spatial variability phytoplankton size-abundance spectra in Gerlache Strait (Antarctica).Deep-Sea Research II 49: Topical studies in Oceanography. 693 - 706.

Lorenzo, L.M., Arbones, B., Figueiras, F.G., Tilstone, G.H., Figueroa, F.L. (2002). Photosynthesis , primary production and phytoplankton growth rates in Gerlache and Bransfield Straits during the cruise Fruela 95 : austral summer. Deep-Sea Research II 49: 707 - 721.

Figueroa, F. L., Jiménez, C., Viñegla, B., Pérez-Rodríguez, E., Aguilera, J., Flores-Moya, A., Altamirano, M., Lebert, M. ,  Häder, D.-P. (2002). Effects of solar  UV radiation on photosynthesis in the marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile) from Southern Spain.Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 230: 59 – 70.

Conde-Álvarez, R., Pérez-Rodríguez, E., Altamirano, M., Nieto, J.M., Abadala, R. Figueroa, F.L. ,  Flores-Moya, A. (2002). Photosynthetic performance and pigment content in the  liverwort Riella helicophylla (Bory et Mont.) Mont. Under natural solar radiation and solar deprived of ultraviolet radiation.Aquatic Botany 73: 47 – 61.

Bañares, E., Altamirano, M. Figueroa, F.L., Flores-Moya, A. (2002). Influence of UV radiation of sporelings of three nongeniculate coralline red algae from Southern Iberian Peninsula.Phycological Research 50: 23 – 30.

Flores-Moya, A. , Posudin, Y.I., Fernández, J.A., Figueroa, F.L., Kawai, H. (2002). Photomovement of the swamers of the brown algae Scytosiphon lomentaria and Petalonia fasciata : effect of photon irradiance , spectral composition and UV dose on photomovement paramenters.J. Photochem. Photobiol. 66: 134 – 140.

Piazena, H, Pérez-Rodríguez, E., Häder, D.-P., Figueroa, F. L. (2002). Penetration of solar radiation into the water column in the central subtropical Pcean-optical properties and possible biological consequences. Deep Sea Research II: 49(17)Topical studies in Oceanography: 3513-3528.

Figueroa, F.L., Escassi, L., Pérez-Rodíguez, E., Korbee, N., Giles, A.D., Johnsen, G. (2003). Effects of short-term irradiatoin on photoinhibition and accumulation of mycosporyine-like aminoacids in sun and shade species of the red algal genus Porphyra. Journal Photochem. & Photobiology 69: 21 – 30.

Pérez-Rodríguez, E., Aguilera J.,  Figueroa F.L. (2003). Tissular localization of coumarins in the green alga Dasycladus vermicularis (Scopoli) Krasser. A photoprotective role? J. Experimental Botany 384: 1 – 8.


Altamirano, M., Flores-Moya, A.,  Figueroa, F.L. (2003). Effects of UV radiation and temperature on growth germlings of three species of Fucus (Phaeophyceae).

Aquatic Botany 75: 9 - 20.

Altamirano, M., Flores-Moya, A. Külenkamp, R. & Figueroa, F.L.(2003). Stage dependent sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation on zygotes of the brown alga Fucus serratus.Zygote 11:101 – 106.


Figueroa, F.L., Nygard, C., Ekelund, N.,  Gómez, I. (2003). Photobiological characteristics and photosynthetic UV responses in two Ulva species (Chlorophyta) from southern Spain. J. Photochem. Photobiol. 72: 35-44.


Korbee-Peinado, N., Abdala-Díaz, R. Figueroa, F.L., Helbling E.W. (2004). Ammonium and UVR stimulate the accumulation of mycosporine-like aminoacids (MAAs) in Porphyra columbina (Rhodophyta) from Patagonia, Argentina. J. Phycology: 40: 248-259.

Aguilera, J.,  De Gálvez Aranda, M.V,  Conde, R. Pérez-Rodríguez, E. Viñegla, B. Abdala, R. , Segovia, M., Herrera Ceballos , E., Figueroa, F.L. (2004). Series temporales de medida de radiación solar ultravioleta y fotosintética en Málaga. Acta Dermosif. 95: 25-31.

Huovinen, P., Gómez, I.  Figueroa, F.L., Ulloa, N., Morales, V., Lovengreen, C. (2004). Ultraviolet-absorbing mycosporine-like aminoacids in red macroalgae from Chile. Botanica Marina 47: 21-29.

Gómez, I.,  Figueroa, F.L., Ulloa, N., Morales, V., Lovengreen, C., Huovinen, C., Hess, S.  (2004). Patterns of photosynthesis in 18 species of intertidal macroalgae from southern Chile. Marine Ecology Progress Series 270; 103-116.

Gómez, I., Figueroa, F.L., Huovinen,P., Ulloa, N. Morales, V. Hess, S.(2005). .Photosynthesis of the red alga Gracilaria chilensis under natural solar radiation in an estuary in southern Chile.  Aquaculture 244:369-382 .

Korbee, N., Huovinen, P., Figueroa, F.L., Aguilera, J. , Karsten, U. (2005). Availability of ammonium influences photosynthesis and the accumulation of mycosporine-like  aminoacids in two Porphyra species (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Marine Biology 146: 645-654

Abdala-Díaz, R.T., Cabello-Pasini, A., Pérez-Rodríguez, E., Conde Álvarez, R.M. , Figueroa, F.L. (2006). Daily and seasonal variations of optimum quantum yield and phenolic compounds in Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Phaeophyta).Mar. Biol. 148: 459-465.

Viñegla, B., Segovia, M., Figueroa F.L. (2006). Effect of artificial UV radiation on carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the macroalgae Fucus spiralis L. and Ulva olivascens Dangeard.  Hidrobiología 560:31-42.

Korbee, N., Figueroa, F.L. , Aguilera, J. (2006). Acumulación de aminoácidos tipo micosporina (MAAs): biosíntesis, fotocontrol y  funciones ecofisiológicas. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural  79:119-132.

Conde-Álvarez, R.M., Figueroa, F.L., Bañares-España, E., Nieto-Caldera, J.M. (2008). Photoprotective role of inflorescence and UV-effects on pollen viabillity of different freshwater plants. Aquatic Sciences 70(1) 57-64.

Aguilera, J., Figueroa, F.L., Häder, D.-P., Jiménez, C.  (2008). Photoinhibition and photosynthetic pigment reorganisation dynamics in light/darkness cycles as photoprotective mechanisms of Porphyra umbilicalis against damaging effects of UV radiation. Scientia Marina 72: 87-97.

Decara, J.M., Aguilera, J., Abdala, R., Sánchez, P., Figueroa, F.L.,Herrera, E. (2008). Screening of urocanic acid isomers in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma tumors compared with tumor periphery and healthy skin. Experimental Dermatology 17:806-812.

De La Coba, F., Aguilera, J., Figueroa, F.L., De Gálvez, M.V., Herrera, E. (2009). Antioxidant activity of mycosporine-like amino acids isolated form three red macroalgae and one marine lichen. J. Appl. Phycol. 21: 161-169.

Aguilera,J. De La Coba, F., De Gálvez, M.V., Álvarez, M., Gallego, E. Figueroa, F.L. Herrera, H. (2009). Prevention of the ultraviolet effect in clinical and histopathological changes, as well as the heat shock protein 72 expression in mouse skin by topical application of algal UV absorbing compounds. Journal of Dermatological Sciences 51: 161-169.

Viñegla, B., Figueroa F.L. (2009). Effect of solar and artificial UV radiation on photosynthetic performance and carbonic anhydrase activity in intertidal macroalgae from Southern Spain. Ciencias Marinas 35: 59-74.

FigueroaF.L., Korbee, N., Carrillo, P., Medina-Sánchez, J.M., Mata, M. Bonomi, J., Sánchez-Castillo, P.M. (2009). The effects of UV radiation on photosynthesis estimated as chlorophyll fluorescence in Zygnemopsis decussata (Chlorophyta) growing in a high mountain lake (Sierra Nevada, Southern Spain). J. Limnol. 68:  206-216.

Figueroa, F.L., Martínez, B., Israel, A., Neori, A., Malta E-J., Ang, P., Inken, S., Marquardt, R., Rachamim, T., Arazi, U., Frenk, S., Korbee, N.  (2009). Acclimation of Red Sea macroalgae to solar radiation: photosynthesis and thallus absorptance. Aquatic Biology 7: 159-172.

Figueroa, F.L., Israel, A., Neori, A., Martínez, B., Malta E-J., Ang, P., Inken, S., Marquardt, R., Korbee, N.  (2009). Effects of nutrient supply on photosynthesis and pigmentation in  Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta): responses to short-term stress. Aquatic Biology 7: 173-183.


Training school on methods for research on the effects of UV-B on plants

More info